[JAVA] Summary of how to select elements in Selenium

This is a summary of how to select HTML elements with Selenium's findElement and findElements methods.

I often test non-customizable sites personally (for reasons such as being automatically generated), and I have summarized the patterns I have used mainly for element selection when transitioning to the next screen. ..

The screenshots in each section show the example site above and the elements below with Chrome's validation feature (developer tools). I tried to put it as it is as much as possible, but there are some that have been slightly modified, such as shortening the width for Qiita and deleting the actual data.

1) Search by id attribute

Example that can be searched by id attribute:


If the desired HTML element has an id attribute, just specify it and search.


All of these sites are easy to test (or rather, you don't need this article).

2) Search by name attribute

Example that can be searched by name attribute:


The name attribute is also basically unique, so just specify it.


3) Search by class attribute

Example that can be searched by unique class attribute:


If it is expected that there is only one desired class attribute, it can be obtained with findElement () as well as the id and name attributes. In this example, it is expected that there is only one "Next" button (btn_next class) on the site, so we get it as it is by specifying the class. If there are multiple elements with the same class, the first one will be returned.

// driver.findElements(By.className("btn_next")).get(0).click();Same as

Example of having multiple same class attributes:


If there are multiple, additional processing is required to get them in the list and find the desired link in them. In this example, the attribute "aria-label" is used to identify the element to click.

List<WebElement> elements = driver.findElements(By.className("mv-tile"));
WebElement targetElement = null;
for (WebElement element: elements ) {
    if (element.getAttribute("aria-label").contains("Publickey")) {
        targetElement = element;
targetElement.click(); //If you click in an if statement, an Exception will be thrown if there is an element that does not correspond to the end.

4) Search by title attribute

From here, it will be the pattern specified by xpath.

Example that can be searched by title attribute:


Search for tags with a specific title as follows. In this example, we are looking for an a tag with the title'Public Report'.

driver.findElement(By.xpath("//a[@title='Public report']")).click();

If the title is long, you can also perform a partial search with contains.

driver.findElement(By.xpath("//a[contains(@title,'Part of a long title')]")).click();

If the title attribute is set, other tags can be searched in the same way. For an input tag with a specific title:

driver.findElement(By.xpath("//input[@title='name']")).sendKeys("Tesuto Ichiro");
driver.findElement(By.xpath("//input[contains(@title,'Part of the title')]")).sendKeys("Text input");

5) Search by value attribute

Example that can be searched by value attribute:


The value attribute is also searched in combination with the tag as well as the title.


6) Search by alt attribute

Example that can be searched by alt attribute:


The alt attribute is also searched in combination with the tag. Since alt is often long, I think that partial matching is often used.

driver.findElement(By.xpath("//a[contains(@alt,'Contact Us')]")).click();

Exact match is possible, though not so often.


7) Search by tag

From here, it is a pattern to search by html structure such as tags.

Examples that can be searched by tag:


The process of getting the elements with the same tag in a list and finding the desired link in them is the same as 3) multiple classes. In this example, it is specified using the "alt" attribute.

List<WebElement> elements = driver.findElements(By.tagName("img"));
WebElement targetElement = null;
for (WebElement element : elements) {
    if (element.getAttribute("alt").equals("In-house business")) {
        targetElement = element;

In this example, the narrowing condition is alt, so you can also get it by 6) notation of alt attribute. (Depending on the combination of tags and attributes, it is difficult to decide which one to use.)

driver.findElement(By.xpath("//img[@alt=\"In-house business\"]")).click();

Also, if you have only one tag, you can search with findElement, but I think this is rare.

// driver.findElements(By.tagName("img")).get(0).click();Same as

8) Path specification (table search)

Table search example:


If the table only has a generic class, get it with the path of the table. In this example, the displayed content contains line breaks and comments, so the indexOf method is used to search for the desired character string.

List<WebElement> tableElements = driver.findElements(By.xpath("//table[@class='table1']/tbody/tr/td/a"));
WebElement targetElement = null;
for(WebElement element : tableElements) {
    if (element.getText().indexOf("PRODUCT002") != -1) {
        targetElement = element;

9) Path specification (list search)

List search example:


Similar to the table, the flow is path search → text search within each element.

List<WebElement> listElements = driver.findElements(By.xpath("//ul[@class='nav navbar-nav navbar-right']/li/a"));
WebElement targetElement = null;
for(WebElement element : listElements ) {
    if (element.getText().indexof("PRODUCT002") > 1) {
        targetElement = element;

10) Search by label

Examples that can be searched by label:


An example of searching for label in combination with the for attribute is as follows.


A pattern with a long label that partially matches. The syntax is the same as 4) -6).

driver.findElement(By.xpath("//label[contains(@for,'Part of the description')]")).click();

11) Search by linkText

From here, it will be a pattern to search by the displayed text.

It's a last resort (?) To move on when there are no searchable attributes and the tag structure is automatically generated, but I feel like I don't know what I'm testing.

linkText Search example:


If you want to search the text by exact match, it will be as follows.


Examples of text with line breaks and comments;


Make a partial match with partialLinkText.

driver.findElement(By.partialLinkText("VA User1")).click();

12) Search by text

Text search example:


If you can not get it even with linkText (such as when the operation at the time of pressing is described in javascript), get it with text and press it.


Others (supplement, etc.)

--In the example, the click method is used, but in IE, you may not be able to proceed unless you use the sendkeys method. Actually, I think that the processing will be divided for each browser like the following.

if (browser.equals(_BROWSER_IE) || browser.equals(_BROWSER_EDGE)) {
} else {

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