The last Ubuntu Weekly Recipe in 2020 was 647th "Use Ubuntu Core Raspberry Pi as Ubuntu Server". So again this year, I'll summarize the Ubuntu Weekly Recipe articles published in 2020.
Please refer to the following article for the previous Annual Report.
There were many things in 2020, but it seems that the world will be able to get rid of it with just one word, "the year when the new coronavirus was at the mercy." Fortunately, Ubuntu, as it can be said for the FLOSS community in general, had little impact on work aside, as developers were scattered all over the world and remote work was virtually a matter of course. .. It's the same with Canonical, and the Ubuntu release itself is as usual.
So in April, the 8th Ubuntu 20.04 LTS was released on schedule for the first time in 2 years. In last year's article, I mentioned that "breaking away from the past" was the main theme, but the actual results are as follows.
End of support for Intel x86 32bit (i386) architecture
Almost no support, but about 1500 packages remain
It is undecided what will happen to these at 22.04
End of support for Python 2
Cannot be completely excluded
Probably completed by 22.04 depending on the situation of Debian 11
From X Window System to Wayland
Continue to adopt X Window System in the initial state
I did my best, but I felt that it was completely impossible. That doesn't mean we didn't do anything, the desktop looks and performance has improved significantly, and recent features such as dark themes and fingerprint authentication have been added. For the server version, the installer Subiquity now supports the long-awaited automatic installation. 18.04 users should upgrade to 20.04 in sequence.
Although LTS has been released, we have not been able to hold a release party or an offline meeting. When LTS came out in April, I thought that I would be able to do it soon, but now I am in a situation where it is impossible for the past few years. Personally, offline meetings are offline, so I don't really feel the meaning of doing them online, but as a result of increasing pressure, "Ubuntu Streaming Meeting" Will be held. It will be held on January 17, 2021 (Sun), so please join us.
Furthermore, in 20.10, the long-awaited "Official support for Raspberry Pi for desktop version of Ubuntu" is now available. Ubuntu started supporting Raspberry Pi from Raspberry Pi 2 Model B released in February 2015. At that time, because it was for embedded systems, only the image of "Snappy Ubuntu Core" for IoT, which had just appeared, was provided. I had taken the kernel and initramfs from Snappy and forced Xubuntu to work, but official desktop support will wait for the official flavor of Ubuntu MATE 15.04.
After all, the powerlessness of the Raspberry Pi was the bottleneck. Although it was unprecedented for embedded devices and ARM-equipped single-board computers at the time, 1GB of memory was still a stumbling block to running desktop Linux. Especially Ubuntu at that time still adopted "Unity". In other words, it required a GPU that supports 3D acceleration, or a CPU power that supplements it. Although the Raspberry Pi 2 also had a GPU core called VideoCore IV, there was no open source driver and 3D acceleration could not be expected.
Later, around after the Raspberry Pi 3 came out, Eric Anholt, who was at Broadcom at the time, developed a GPU driver for FLOSS called VC4. Although I was able to clear 3D acceleration with this, the GNOME Shell was in a very difficult state even if it worked due to the low performance of the GPU itself and the small amount of main memory. Therefore, if you use an Ubuntu desktop, it is common to use Ubuntu MATE or Xubuntu.
Meanwhile, the Raspberry Pi 4 with significantly improved performance was introduced last year. The GPU has also been updated to Video Core VI, and the main memory is up to 8GB, making it more realistic to use desktops that utilize 3D acceleration. It was at the release of 20.10 that the V3D driver for VideoCore VI was officially incorporated into the kernel and the use of GNOME Shell became more realistic.
As you can see in the Topics December 18, 2020, this year was a big move for Raspberry Pi support on Ubuntu. You can now see Ubuntu Appliance image published with certain services installed. Personally, I'd like to see Zero compatible with ARMv7 or later.
The biggest impact is Official release of Windows Subsystem for Linux 2 (WSL2) . From the beginning of the release of WSL1, Windows users who wanted a Linux environment were cheerfully accepted, and Microsoft had an atmosphere of devoting resources. And WSL2 is the one that fundamentally changed the architecture in order to solve various dissatisfactions that became apparent while using WSL1. Actually, it was already ready for use in Insider Preview etc., so people who use WSL heavily may have already been after WSL2, but the official release is still a big milestone.
Topics is a series that introduces Ubuntu news, but the top is Microsoft's introduction of tools for Windows, and there is a sense of alienation. By the way, this year's WSL online conference microWSLconf was also held. It seems that it was originally planned to be an offline event as WSLconf, so this can also be said to be the effect of the new coronavirus.
By the way, Ubuntu Weekly Recipe in 2020 started from the 601st "Desktop Environment 2019-2020" by Mr. Ikuya, which has been customary since around 2014. Not only Ubuntu/GNOME, but also other desktop environments, so users of Ubuntu, other flavors, and Linux distributions other than Ubuntu can see how their desktop environment has changed in a year. Isn't it good to look back?
In 2020, there were a total of 47 publications from the 601st to the 647th. It has decreased by about 2 times compared to 49 times last year and two years ago. This isn't because the offline meeting wasn't held, so the report wasn't reduced ... it's purely because the writing team was so busy that it was suspended twice. I want a new person soon.
"Ubuntu Weekly Recipe" is originally Ubuntu's (mainly desktop) software, as it says "__We will deliver various recipes to take advantage of Ubuntu's powerful desktop features. __" It was a series that introduced and how to customize. Now I'm free to introduce Ubuntu-specific features regardless of desktop or server, summarize changes for each release, event reports, and anything else that the authors have come up with, but I'm still of this type. Introductory articles exist in their own way.
Mr. Mizuno's 605th "Make a terminal a dashboard with Sampler" and the 620th "Try SSH two-element authentication using U2F/FIDO device with Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ) ”, The 630th“ Challenge to stack astronomical photos on Ubuntu ”, and the 633th“ Create a subtitle file and burn it into a video ”by Mr. Murata Ikuya-san's 640th "Control remote files from the command line using the gio command" can be said to be a Recipe-like Recipe in terms of "Ubuntu convenient use". ..
Office suites are the killer apps for desktop Linux. In the LibreOffice article, familiar Ikuya wrote the 608th "LibreOffice Redacting Function" this year. This is actually a current affair, but it is a useful article even if you read the article alone (especially for people in the government office). Mr. Ikuya also published LibreOffice material such as "Install LibreOffice 6.4" in the 612th session and "Function comparison between LibreOffice 6.4 Calc and Microsoft Excel 365" in the 623rd session. It supplies me.
Many people may only use Calc/Excel or Impress/PowerPoint in LibreOffice/Microsoft Office. However, I personally often make presentation materials with Beamer, so in Part 644, I introduced "Presentation tool Pympress that also supports note display" as an alternative to PowerPoint. As long as you convert it to PDF, it will be convenient because it will be data that can be used regardless of the platform like this.
EPUB is an "e-book format" that is a perfect match for PDF. I think that most of the distribution in technical books is PDF, EPUB, or both. Most of the EPUB readers that work on Ubuntu have been out of maintenance before they even appeared. Meanwhile, in the 634th edition by editor Takahashi, he introduced the EPUB reader, which can be said to be his favorite, as "Cross-platform EPUB reader" Thorium Reader "". Yes, it was written by the editor of this series. When the writing team was too busy to get around, he pitched because he had one story. That section really helped me.
Even in the era of container heyday, virtual machines are still used for general users, desktops, and OS users other than Linux. Many people are indebted to virtual machines, especially when using Ubuntu on Windows or wanting to use different distribution releases on Ubuntu. Many people should be indebted to Ikuya-san's annual 604th "New Features of VirtualBox 6.1".
"Lack of games" is often cited as one of the obstacles to the spread of Linux desktops. Some of the popular games, such as lining up cards with numbers from 1 to 13 or looking for bombs buried in the ground, have been around for a long time on Ubuntu, but for major 3D crunchy games, the platform. There were some difficult things due to the difference. Steam and Proton/Wine are changing that situation significantly. As a result of Steam's establishment as a PC game platform, "game distribution and installation methods" have been standardized. As a result, it's now possible to absorb platform differences by following Steam's style. In addition, Wine, which is implemented as a compatibility layer of the Windows API, has been enhanced with its functions as the version goes up. Steam has extended this Wine as a game-specific Proton and incorporated it into Steam. As a result, "many Windows games" now run on Linux as they are.
In the 626th "Windows games on Ubuntu!" and the 627th "Windows games in the container!", for Windows provided by Steam. Introducing how to play 3D games on Linux. In addition, the latter describes a setting that keeps Steam and the game in a container, yet the game controller also works. This article was written simply from the pure desire to play Little Witch Nobeta. Nobeta is cute.
It's difficult to classify, but Ikuya's 618th "Use Ubuntu Cinnamon Remix" will also be included here. Ubuntu has a variety of flavors, and each flavor has an ardent fan base. I would like to introduce other flavors with the feeling that "this is a good place".
Trouble is inevitable when using Ubuntu. It is useful in case of emergency if you are always aware of "what to do in such a case" in case of trouble. Ikuya-san's 645th "Migrate data to SSD with larger capacity" and 638th "[Various ways to log in to Ubuntu'normally'(https://gihyo.jp/admin/serial/01/ubuntu-recipe/0638)", No. You may want to read 639 "Various ways to log in to Ubuntu'in case of trouble" "in case something goes wrong".
One of Recipe's classic articles is "I bought a new device / I installed Ubuntu". As a result of many "house activities" this year, I think many people bought gadgets and furniture.
Mr. Ikuya, who loves AMD, said the 631st "AMD Ryzen 7 PRO 4750G [Part 1]" and the 632nd "AMD Ryzen 7 PRO 4750G [Part 2]". ) ”Was written. I've been writing AMD articles almost every year for the last few years.
What you should do when you buy a PC is standardized as it is. The 628th "Check the initial operation of the PC" by Mr. Ikuya will be helpful when procuring a new PC. Also, recent home-built PCs have a tendency to want to put LEDs on them. If you want to use such LEDs, you should also refer to the 635th "Let's make your computer shine on Ubuntu" by Mr. Ikuya.
As I mentioned at the beginning, 20.10. Has the long-awaited "official support for the desktop version of Ubuntu's Raspberry Pi". As a preliminary step to this, in Part 624, I introduced how to manually convert to desktop as "Install Ubuntu for desktop version on Raspberry Pi 4". Since it was released safely after that, Mr. Ikuya wrote the 643th "Use Ubuntu 20.10 for desktop with Raspberry Pi 4".
In connection with the device that came out last year, Ikuya also wrote the 637th "Install Ubuntu 20.04 LTS version on GPD Micro PC".
In a slightly unusual place, there is also the 606th "Use the open source multifunctional measuring instrument Pocket Science Lab on Ubuntu". The software of these measurement tools is often Windows-only, so I would like to see more devices that can be used on Linux like this.
Ubuntu has undoubtedly become one of the most popular distributions because of the ease of use of the desktop version of Ubuntu. However, the server version of Ubuntu is now being used on par with CentOS and Debian. Introducing the know-how of such Ubuntu server is also an article in the category that responds well.
The trend of "container type when it comes to virtualization" continues. From the era of Docker, cats and scoops have been gradually using tools such as Kubernetes (or something similar) and Istio to say "cloud native", "microservice", "service mesh", etc. We are moving in the direction of making a rice scoop.
Kubernetes seems to be particularly compatible with machine learning platforms. That's why the 642nd "Use GPU from microk8s on virtual machine" introduced how to set up to use GPU from microk8s Kubernetes environment. I limited it to virtual machines because I wanted to install microk8s on a virtual machine instance of LXD. If you just want to enable the GPU on the microk8s, you can do it with a single command.
"Multipass" exists as a CLI virtual machine management system that can be used not only on Ubuntu but also on Windows and macOS. As one of the usages of this multipass, the 611th introduces "Create a virtual machine image for multipass with Packer".
If you want to do IFTTT-like services on-premises, you can also refer to Mr. Mizuno's 607th "Automating workflows that connect Web services with n8n". Recently, various server applications have been implemented in FLOSS. Personally, I am very grateful to Nextcloud. Collabora Online and CODE using LibreOffice Online are the functions to realize online office with Nextcloud. In the 625th session, we built an online office environment with the title "Edit office files with Nextcloud".
OpenNebula is a private cloud platform that is comparable to OpenStack. I have introduced it several times in this series. The miniONE introduced in the 629th "miniONE that can build an all-in-one private cloud in a few minutes" is a tool that can easily build such an OpenNebula.
Furthermore, although this year was the year of LTS, the server version of LTS has a personally long-awaited feature of automatic installation. I introduced how to use it in the 615th "Automatic installation function introduced in the server version installer".
Recipe articles are about thousands to 10,000 characters at a time. As anyone who has written a technical article will understand, it's easy to exceed this number of characters in a matter of seconds with just a little polite explanation. In the case of articles with physical restrictions such as magazines and books, the content will be selected according to the layout and design. However, Recipe is a web article with few physical restrictions, so it has the advantage that the author can write as much as he wants.
However, writing a lot does not mean that the manuscript fee will increase, and because there are no restrictions, the content tends to be thin or divergent. As a reader, the longer the dose, the less motivated you will be to read. In the first place, increasing the volume of one weekly serialization will increase the burden on the author / editor. In other words, it is highly likely that no one will be happy. However, it is often the case that there are too many topics to talk about on a particular subject at one time. Reflecting such circumstances, there is also an article in Recipe that publishes "specific theme" in multiple times.
In 2020, rather than being introduced by a specific person at once, as a result of the social situation, it was strange that multiple authors wrote articles on similar themes. Yes, it is "remote work related".
First of all, "remote meeting" became popular at once due to the epidemic of the new coronavirus. Various meeting tools such as Zoom and Teams are now available at once. Most of these tools can also be accessed from a web browser, but a dedicated client is often more convenient. Furthermore, as a result of being able to run on the browser, it is relatively easy to build a cross-platform client because the dedicated tools and the back end are shared with the browser engine. As a result, I get the impression that many clients are also available on Ubuntu.
However, some people may want to build the server side with FLOSS tools on Ubuntu anyway. Nextcloud and Jitsi Meet in particular seem to be relatively popular for this purpose. It seems that Nextcloud is aiming for a specific small group collaboration, and Jitsi Meet is aiming for a meeting with an unspecified number of people. In this series as well, Nextcloud Talk was introduced in the 610th "Remote Meeting with Nextcloud Talk". I was thinking of Jitsi Meet, but I missed the time a little. I'd be happy if someone could do it for me.
As remote meetings such as Zoom became popular, the next trend was "improvement of camera image". I'm enthusiastic about how to prevent the camera from seeing a small and cluttered room, how to show my face beautifully while I'm in the room all the time, and how to hide the situation where only my upper body is wearing a suit. Many people would have been there. After all, it's easy and reliable to filter one between the "webcam" and the "delivery tool". In the 619th "Processing video delivered to Zoom with HDMI capture board", the method of converting the HDMI output from the outside into a webcam with the HDMI capture board, further processing it with OBS and sending it to Zoom Is introduced. If you want a whiteboard to co-edit during a meeting, you might find the 622, "Sharing a Whiteboard on Spacedeck" (https://gihyo.jp/admin/serial/01/ubuntu-recipe/0622).
Another important tool for remote work is "VPN". Since ancient times, VPN itself has been widely used in various mechanisms. The 617th "Build a simple VPN with SSH only using SOCKS" is the best example, and recently, Mr. Mizuno's 614th "[Build a VPN server with WireGuard]" ](https://gihyo.jp/admin/serial/01/ubuntu-recipe/0614) ”was introduced in the Linux kernel, so its use may increase in the future. What you want to do with a VPN is access to resources, including your company's PC. If your target is running the X Window System, Ikuya's 621st "Using xrdp with Ubuntu 20.04 LTS" will be helpful. If your target is Windows and you only have a web browser at hand, Kobayashi-san's 613th "Remotely connect to Windows 10 from a web browser using Apache Guacamole" is also available.
I have been writing LXD articles since last year. Since LXD 4.0 has been released in line with Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, we are introducing the functions added there, 4.x functions, etc., depending on the situation. However, we haven't fully introduced the new features of LXD 3.0 ...
For personal reasons, I've recently been working on the theme, "Can I promote Ubuntu for embedded use a bit more?" As a preliminary step, I wrote the following article.
I plan to write an article that introduces how to use Ubuntu Core in the coming years. Speaking of which, Ubuntu 20.04 LTS has added the long-sought RISC-V support. The RISC-V environment introduced in the 603rd "Running a Debian image of RISC-V with QEMU" should be able to be realized on Ubuntu, so I would like to do something in connection with Ubuntu Core. Right.
Ubuntu is released every six months, so you can write articles like "_This Ubuntu release! __" every six months. This year, the first LTS release in two years, 20.04, was released, but there were few "major changes." As usual, Ikuya wrote "Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Changes" in the 616th session, but it wasn't about 20.10.
There will probably be a Debian release next year, so stay tuned for articles on what's new in Debian 11.
As an Ubuntu Japanese Team, Software Design also has a series entitled "Ubuntu Monthly Report". Therefore, let's keep a list of article titles whose publication date is 2020.
--January 2020 Issue 116th "Ubuntu Support Period" (Awashiro Ikuya) --February 2020 issue 117th "New features of LibreOffice 6.4" (Awashiro Ikuya) --March 2020 Issue 118th "Install Ubuntu MATE 19.10 on GPD Micro PC" (Awashiro Ikuya) --May 2020 issue 3rd special feature "Ubuntu 20.04 LTS main point explanation What has changed between desktop and server?" (Ubuntu Japanese Team)
In fact, the Monthly Report was scheduled to close in March and become an "Ubuntu Newsletter" every other month from May. However, the May issue featured Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, and as a result, the new serialization started in the July issue.
--July 2020 issue 1st "Ubuntu 20.04 LTS and Windows 10" (Awashiro Ikuya) --September 2020 issue 2nd "5 selections of USB wireless LAN adapters that can be used with Ubuntu 20.04 LTS" (Awashiro Ikuya) --November 2020 issue 3rd "Changes in Ubuntu 20.10" (Awashiro Ikuya)
However, due to various adult circumstances, the serialization ended in 3 times after the renewal. Since the Ubuntu Monthly Report started from May 2010 issue, it was a long-term serialization for more than 10 years. Thank you for reading.
I remember that around 2010, Ubuntu was finally becoming a widespread choice for Linux in Japan. In 2009, the previous year, there were many epoch-making events such as the launch of Ubuntu Magazine Japan, the launch of NetWalker, and the holding of the first offline meeting, and I certainly feel that the atmosphere of "Isn't Ubuntu good?" Is spreading. It was a happy time in a sense.
Ubuntu and its surroundings have changed a lot since then, but Ubuntu is still halfway through. I would like to continue to appeal to both Recipe and other forms so that they can be called again in a series or in a single shot.
Of the 47 posts posted this year, the Ubuntu Japanese Team posted 46 times and guest posts once. The number of times the team is in charge is 23 for Shibata, 16 for Ikuya, 5 for Mizuno, and 1 for Kobayashi and Murata. I'm glad that Mr. Mizuno will increase at this rate.
--The 601st Desktop Environment 2019-2020 (January 8, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 602nd Because it is 2020, let's embed the ciphertext in the text with a half-width space (January 15, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 603rd Move the Debian image of RISC-V with QEMU (January 22, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 604th New Features of VirtualBox 6.1 (January 29, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 605th Make the terminal a dashboard with Sampler (February 5, 2020: Gen Mizuno) --The 606th Using the open source multifunctional measuring instrument Pocket Science Lab on Ubuntu (February 12, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 607th Automating workflows that connect Web services with n8n (February 19, 2020: Gen Mizuno) --The 608th Redacting function of LibreOffice (February 26, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --No. 609 Starting a virtual machine instead of a container from LXD (March 4, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 610th Remote Meeting with Nextcloud Talk (March 11, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 611th Creating a virtual machine image for multipass with Packer (March 18, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 612th Installing LibreOffice 6.4 (March 25, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 613th Remote connection to Windows 10 from a web browser using Apache Guacamole (April 1, 2020: Jun Kobayashi) --The 614th Building a VPN Server with WireGuard (April 8, 2020: Gen Mizuno) --The 615th Automatic installation function introduced in the server version installer (April 15, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 616th Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Changes (April 22, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 617th Building a simple VPN with SSH only using SOCKS (April 29, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 618th Using Ubuntu Cinnamon Remix (May 13, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 619th Processing video delivered to Zoom with HDMI capture board (May 20, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 620th Trying 2-factor authentication of SSH using U2F/FIDO device on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (May 27, 2020: Gen Mizuno) --The 621st Ubuntu 20.04 Using xrdp with LTS (June 3, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 622nd Sharing the Whiteboard on Spacedeck (June 10, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 623rd Function Comparison between LibreOffice 6.4 Calc and Microsoft Excel 365 (June 17, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 624th Install Ubuntu for desktop on Raspberry Pi 4 (June 24, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 625th Editing Office Files with Nextcloud (July 1, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --No. 626 Steam Windows games on Ubuntu! (July 8, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --No. 627 Windows games in the container! (July 15, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 628th Checking the initial operation of the PC (July 22, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 629th miniONE that can build an all-in-one private cloud in a few minutes (July 29, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 630th Challenge to stack astrophotography on Ubuntu (August 5, 2020: Gen Mizuno) --631 Using AMD Ryzen 7 PRO 4750G [Part 1] (August 19, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 632nd Using AMD Ryzen 7 PRO 4750G [Part 2] (August 26, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 633th Create a subtitle file and burn it into a video (September 2, 2020: Nobuto Murata) --The 634th Cross-platform EPUB reader "Thorium Reader" (September 9, 2020: Kazumichi Takahashi) --The 635th Let's make your computer shine on Ubuntu (September 16, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 636th Operating LXD from a web browser with LXD Mosaic (October 7, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 637th Installing Ubuntu 20.04 LTS version on GPD Micro PC (October 14, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 638th Various ways to log in to Ubuntu "normally" (October 21, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --No. 639 Various ways to log in to Ubuntu "in case of trouble" (October 28, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --No. 640 Controlling remote files from the command line using the gio command (November 4, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --641 Making a single server into a Kubernetes cluster with LXD and microk8s (November 11, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 642nd Using GPU from microk8s on virtual machine (November 18, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --643 Using Ubuntu 20.10 for desktop with Raspberry Pi 4 (November 25, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 644th Presentation tool Pympress that also supports note display (December 2, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 645th Data migration to SSD with larger capacity (December 9, 2020: Awashiro Ikuya) --The 646th Ubuntu Core that can utilize Raspberry Pi as an IoT device (December 16, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata) --The 647th Use Ubuntu Core Raspberry Pi as an Ubuntu server (December 23, 2020: Mitsuya Shibata)
How was this year's Ubuntu Weekly Recipe? I hope it will be helpful as a review of articles you have read, articles you have not read, and articles you have written.