[JAVA] About the same and equivalent

This time we are talking about the concept of "same" in Java.

Two different meanings of the word same

--Refering to the same instance --The instances are different, but the values are the same

The former is called "equal" and the latter is called "equivalent".

About the same

Object hoge = new Object();
Object huga = hoge; //Copy the hoge reference and assign it to huga

At this time, hoge and huga are said to be the same. The identity is judged by the == operator.

For example

Object hoge = new Object();
Object huga = new Object();
huga = hoge;

Even so, hoge and huga are not the same (because they are different instances).

About equivalence

public class Cat{
  private String name;
  public Cat(String name) {
    this.name = name;

Create two instances with the same name value using the class.

    Cat hoge = new Cat("neko");
    Cat huga = new Cat("neko");

As mentioned in the previous section, these two instances are not the same because they have different references. However, each reference has the same value. Such a state is said to be equivalent between hoge and huga.

** Equivalence cannot be judged with ==. ** hoge == huga returns false.

Judgment of equivalence

Use the equals method to determine equivalence. ** However, the equals method defined in the Object class is implemented to check the identity. ** **

public boolean equals(Object obj){
  return (this == obj);

Therefore, whether different instances have the same value (equivalence) is determined by overriding the ** equal method. ** **

public static class Cat {
    private String name;
    public Cat(String name) {
      this.name = name;
    public boolean equals(Object obj) {
      if (obj == null){
        return false;
      if (obj instanceof Cat){
        Cat cat = (Cat) obj;
        return cat.name == this.name;
      return false;

If so, you can judge equivalence by using hoge.equals (huga). By the way, depending on how you write the override of the equal method, you can also judge that in a class with multiple values, if one of the values matches, it is considered to be the same value.

About the same and equivalent string literals

The String type is a reference type data type, but an instance can be created only by a string literal (enclosed in ""). ** Instances created with this string literal are an exception, and the == operator can be used to determine equivalence. ** **

public static void main(String[] args) {
    String a= "neko";
    String b = "neko";
    System.out.println(a == b); //Returns with true

This is because string literals are created as constant values in a memory space for constants different from the instance, and there is a mechanism called "constant pool" for reusing references.

However, since this is only when a string literal is used, if a Sring type variable is created with the new operator, the equivalence cannot be determined with the == operator.


Thorough capture Java SE11 Silver problem collection

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