Ruby from the perspective of other languages


Ruby Part 2 Advent Calendar 2020 Day 15 Article! !!

Around the fall of this year, Ruby Association Examination Was received.

While studying for the exam at that time, there were just things like "Do you write this in Ruby?" Or "Does this mean in Ruby?", So I will introduce it really lightly! !!

(I don't know much at all, so please try more ...)

Click here for teaching materials when studying. If you are interested, please try it! !!

begin ~ resucue

Speaking of Ruby exception handling, this is it. The error that occurred in the begin block is picked up by resucue and error handling is performed.

  1 / 0
rescue ZeroDivisionError => error
  p error

# => #<ZeroDivisionError: divided by 0>

In other languages, I think most of them are try ~ catch.

try {
} catch (error) {

// > ReferenceError: nonExistentFunction is not defined

Try and catch in Ruby


Ruby also has try, but it's a method for objects, not exception handling methods.

Try in Ruby is ** almost ** synonymous with & .. (&. Is often called ** nil guard **.) ** "Almost" **, so there are a few differences.

&. Calls the method if the object is not ** nil. ** ** try calls a method when the object's ** method can be called. ** **

# &.
10&.to_s        # => "10"
10&.hoge        # => Error: undefined method `hoge' for 10:Fixnum (NoMethodError)
nil&.to_s       # nil

# try
10.try(:to_s)   # => "10"
10.try(:hoge)   # => nil
nil.try(:to_s)  # => nil


Catch in Ruby can be exited if it matches its argument when throw runs in the block. It is one set with throw ~ catch.

catch :error do
  puts "hoge"
  throw :error
  puts "fuga"
# => hoge

This is similar to begin ~ rescue, but quite different. Click here for details.

It's more like C language goto than exception handling.


For those who write C or Go, the * variables are pretty familiar.

Everyone loves it, ** pointer **!


import "fmt"

func main() {
	i, j := 42, 2701

	p := &i         
	*p = 21         

	p = &j         
	*p = *p / 37   


The pointer points to the ** value memory address **. To put it simply, it looks like this. (Example: go)

i := 42
p := &i
fmt.Println(p)  // 0xc000122020
fmt.Println(&p) // 0xc000124018
fmt.Println(*p) // 42

fmt.Println(i)  // 42
fmt.Println(&i) // 0xc000122020
fmt.Println(*i) //Get an error
variable value アドレスvalue
i i = 42 &i == p = 0xc000122020
p *p == i = 42 &p = 0xc000124018

Click here for pointers.

However, * variables in Ruby are not ** pointers! !! ** (When I first learned about it, I misunderstood that it was a pointer ...)

In Ruby, it is ** an array of variables **. In other words, it has the same meaning as the to_a method. When attached to a method keyword argument, it can be used as a ** variadic argument **.

def foo (a, *b)
  p a, b

foo(1, 2, 3, 4)

# => 1
# => [2, 3, 4]


By the way, in Ruby you can also write ** variables. This often means Hash.

def variadic_keyword(**hash_args)
  p hash_args

variadic_keyword(april:"spring", july:"summer")

# => {:april=>"spring", :july=>"summer"}

At the end

It's really easy and light! !!

I think there are many other things, so I will update them each time. (Please do not ask for the test results ...)

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